Sunday, August 20, 2017

Celebrate World Alzheimer's Day

Caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professionals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

World Alzheimer's Day

Healthnews-stat.com



Author Susan Berg says "It is everyone’s duty to embrace this day because there is no time to lose when fighting the battle of preventing this terrible disease." Here are some simple things you can do

What do you know about Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias?

How can you decrease your chances of getting these disease?

How can you help someone with Alzheimer’s disease or a related dementia?

This year’s theme is 'Faces of Dementia!'
Yes, there is an urgency for all to learn about these diseases and do what they can to prevent them in themselves. Also legislators need to contacted so more funds can be allocated for research. World Alzheimer’s day, on Sept 21, is the perfect time to do this.

Approximately 5.5 million people in the United States already have Alzheimer’s disease or a related dementia. The number will continue to grow as the baby boomers reach the age of retirement.

What can you do right now to lessen your chances of getting these diseases?

1. Stop smoking! There is nothing positive about smoking. Studies have shown that smoking not only raises your chances of developing dementia, but it also increases your chances of getting other diseases.

2. Eat a healthy diet. Research suggests that the Mediterranean diet staves off the onset of dementia

3. Keep mentally active. Again studies have shown this, to be a way to delay the onset of dementia.

4. Keep physically active. Research indicates that moderate exercise at least a half an hour three times a week is another way to keep dementia from affecting you.

How can you help others?

Donate to the Alzheimer’s Association. Give your time and/ or money. Help with special events. Organize fund raisers.

Susan Berg has written a book called, Adorable Photographs of Our Baby, for those with dementia, their caregivers, and interested professionals.
She is donating money to the Alzheimer’s Association for each book she sells. She is passionate about educating others on these diseases. Visit her blog at http://dementiaviews.blogspot.com.

You or someone you know could develop symptoms tomorrow. The cost of caring for those with Alzheimer’s disease or a related dementia is expensive monetarily, physically, emotionally, and psychologically.


So please acknowledge World Alzheimer’s Day, September 21

Friday, August 18, 2017

Solving the Puzzle of Alzheimer’s Disease

Caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great 
dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professionals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best 
caregiver you can be


Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow 
alzheimersideas on twitter


The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition

Summary: A new study reports a compound by the name of AC253 may inhibit amyloid beta.

Source: University of Alberta.
UAlberta scientist seeks to neutralize ‘rogue’ protein believed to be a key player in the development of Alzheimer’s.
Every day tens of thousands of Canadians unwillingly find themselves becoming shadows of their former selves. They grasp onto moments of clarity–fleeting windows of time–before slipping away again into confusion; robbed of memories, talents and their very personalities.
Alzheimer’s is a heart-wrenching disease that directly affects half a million Canadians. There is no cure, let alone treatment to stop progression of the disease. While current answers are few, research at the University of Alberta is spearheading the discovery of new potential therapies for the future.
A study published in the journal Alzheimer’s and Dementia: Translational Research and Clinical Intervention examines if a compound called AC253 can inhibit a “rogue” protein called amyloid. The protein is found in large numbers in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients and is suspected to be a key player in the development of the disease.
“The way I look at it, it’s hard to ignore the biggest player on the stage, which is the amyloid protein. Whatever treatment you develop, it’s got to address that player,” says Jack Jhamandas, Professor of Neurology in the Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry at the University of Alberta and senior author of the study. “In our previous work we have shown that there are certain drug compounds that can protect nerve cells from amyloid toxicity. One of these is a compound we call AC253. It sounds like an Air Canada flight. I hope this one is on time and takes us to our destination!”
The team, comprised of postdoctoral fellows and research associates Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel and Wen Fu, tested AC253 on mice bred by David Westaway (a University of Alberta collaborator) to develop Alzheimer’s. Mice were treated with a continuous infusion of AC253 for five months, beginning at three months of age before development of the disease.
“We found at eight months, when these mice typically have a lot of amyloid in the brain and have a lot of difficulty in memory and learning tasks, that they actually improved their memory and learning,” says Jhamandas, also a member of the U of A’s Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute.
As part of the study, the team of local and international researchers also developed and tested a more efficient method of getting the compound into the brain. Given an injection three times a week for 10 weeks of AC253 with a slightly modified structure, they again found there was an improvement in memory and learning performance. In addition, the researchers noted there was a lower amount of amyloid in the brains of mice treated with the compound compared to mice that did not get the drug, and that they exhibited reduced inflammation of the brain.
A diagram of an alzhiemer's brain.
The team is now planning additional studies to examine optimal dosage and methods of further improving the compound to increase its effectiveness in the brain. Much more work is needed before the research can move to human trials. Image is for illustrative purposes only.
The team is now planning additional studies to examine optimal dosage and methods of further improving the compound to increase its effectiveness in the brain. Much more work is needed before the research can move to human trials.
Despite the long path still ahead, Jhamandas believes the findings offer both hope and a new way forward to unlock the Alzheimer’s enigma.
“Alzheimer’s is a complex disease. Not for a moment do I believe that the solution is going to be a simple one, but maybe it will be a combination of solutions.”
“We can’t build nursing homes and care facilities fast enough because of an aging population. And that tsunami, the silver tsunami, is coming if not already here,” adds Jhamandas. “At a human level, if you can keep someone home instead of institutionalized, even for a year, what does it mean to them? It means the world to them and their families.”
ABOUT THIS ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE RESEARCH ARTICLE
Funding: Funding provided by Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Alberta Innovates, Alberta Prion Research Institute, Alzheimer Society of Alberta, University Hospital Foundation.
Source: Ross Neitz – University of Alberta 
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Cyclic AC253, a novel amylin receptor antagonist, improves cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease” by Rania Soudy1, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, and Jack Jhamandas in Alzheimer’s and Dementia. Published online December 9 2016 doi:10.1016/j.trci.2016.11.005
CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
University of Alberta “Solving the Puzzle of Alzheimer’s Disease.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 16 February 2017.
.

Abstract
Cyclic AC253, a novel amylin receptor antagonist, improves cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease
Introduction
Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid β-protein (Aβ), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Aβ toxicity in vitro and abrogates Aβ-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation.
Methods
Amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months. New cyclized peptide cAC253 was synthesized and administered intraperitoneally three times a week for 10 weeks in the same mouse model. Cognitive functions were monitored, and pathologic changes were quantified biochemically and immunohistochemically.
Results
AC253, when administered intracerebroventricularly, improves spatial memory and learning, increases synaptic integrity, reduces microglial activation without discernible adverse effects in TgCRND8 mice. cAC253 demonstrates superior brain permeability, better proteolytic stability, and enhanced binding affinity to brain amylin receptors after a single intraperitoneal injection. Furthermore, cAC253 administered intraperitoneally also demonstrates improvement in spatial memory in TgCRND8 mice.
Discussion
Amylin receptor is a therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease and represents a disease-modifying therapy for this condition.
“Cyclic AC253, a novel amylin receptor antagonist, improves cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease” by Rania Soudy1, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, and Jack Jhamandas in Alzheimer’s and Dementia. Published online December 9 2016 doi:10.1016/j.trci.2016.11.005
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Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Alzheimer's personality and behavior changes

Caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professionals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

ADEAR
n dementia, the brain loses a number of abilities. This can change a person's personality and behavior. Use this tip sheet's suggestions to better understand them.




Changes in the way people act can be one of the biggest challenges in caring for people with Alzheimer's. 

There is much you can do to smooth the journey.

COMMON CHANGES IN PERSONALITY AND BEHAVIOR

Common personality and behavior changes you may see include:
  • Getting upset, worried, and angry more easily
  • Acting depressed or not interested in things
  • Hiding things or believing other people are hiding things
  • Imagining things that aren't there
  • Wandering away from home
  • Pacing a lot
  • Showing unusual sexual behavior
  • Hitting you or other people
  • Misunderstanding what he or she sees or hears
You also may notice that the person stops caring about how he or she looks, stops bathing, and wants to wear the same clothes every day.
In addition to changes in the brain, other things may affect how people with
Alzheimer's behave:
  • Feelings such as sadness, fear, stress, confusion, or anxiety
  • Health-related problems, including illness, pain, new medications, or lack of sleep
  • Other physical issues like infections, constipation, hunger or thirst, or problems seeing or hearing
  • Problems in their surroundings, like too much noise or being in an unfamiliar place
If you don't know what is causing the problem, call the doctor. It could be caused by a physical or medical issue. 

KEEP THINGS SIMPLE… AND OTHER TIPS

Caregivers cannot stop Alzheimer's-related changes in personality and behavior, but they can learn to cope with them. Here are some tips:
  1. Keep things simple. Ask or say one thing at a time.
  2. Have a daily routine, so the person knows when certain things will happen.
  3. Reassure the person that he or she is safe and you are there to help.
  4. Focus on his or her feelings rather than words. For example, say, "You seem worried."
  5. Don't argue or try to reason with the person.
  6. Try not to show your frustration or anger. If you get upset, take deep breaths and count to 10. If it's safe,
  7. leave the room for a few minutes.
  8. Use humor when you can.
  9. Give people who pace a lot a safe place to walk.
  10. Try using music, singing, or dancing to distract the person.
  11. Ask for help. For instance, say, "Let's set the table" or "I need help folding the clothes."
Talk with the person's doctor about problems like hitting, biting, depression, or hallucinations. Medications are available to treat some behavioral symptoms.



MORE INFORMATION: 
For more caregiving tips and other resources: SOURCE:
  • The Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center is a service of the National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health. The Center offers information and publications for families, caregivers, and professionals about Alzheimer's disease and age-related cognitive changes.

Monday, August 14, 2017

Dementia and HS aging

Caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professionals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

University of Kentucky Sanders-Brown Center on Aging

3 important dementia studies focus on HS-AGING. It's a type of dementia almost as common as Alzheimer's in the 85+ group. Yet few people have heard of it. Why? What makes it different? 




In those who live to a very advanced age (beyond the age of 85) HS-AGING (hippocampal sclerosis in the elderly) is almost as prevalent as Alzheimer's. Remarkably, HS-Aging appears to be a completely separate disease from Alzheimer's, although it is almost always diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease while people are alive.

Three important papers authored by Dr. Peter Nelson and others at the University of Kentucky Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, explore the neuropathology behind this little-understood brain disease.

HS-AGING, much like Alzheimer's disease, causes symptoms of dementia, such as cognitive decline and impaired memory. Although Alzheimer's disease is probably the most recognized cause of dementia, HS-AGING also causes serious cognitive impairment in many older adults.

Overview of 3 New Studies on HS-AGING:

  1. The first paper, published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, draws from a very large sample population and shows that presently, around 20% of all dementia cases are diagnosed as HS-AGING at autopsy, although almost none are given that diagnosis during life. That means that the presence of this disease is currently almost unknown by the health care providers who are seeing patients.
  2. A second study, "Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions," appears in a recent issue of the journal Brain, and looks at small blood vessels in patients with HS-Aging and describes a specific change, called "arteriolosclerosis," which is present in patients with HS-Aging. This small blood vessel change may provide a new therapeutic target to alter the progression of the disease.
  3. Finally, the third paper, "Hippocampal sclerosis of aging, a prevalent and high morbidity brain disease," appears in Acta Neuropathologica and offers an overview of HS-AGING for patients and researchers. This paper reviews the relevant scientific literature and also presses home the point that HS-AGING is a very common disease that exerts a strongly adverse impact on public health.
It is important for physicians and scientists to understand the unique pathology of HS-AGING, and to be able to differentiate it from other diseases, as it is only by making an accurate diagnosis that clinicians can hope to treat people who present with signs of cognitive decline. These current studies represent a leap forward in the knowledge base about HS-AGING, and represent potential new paths to explore for diagnosis and treatment of this serious, but under-appreciated brain disease.

In people over 95, a type of dementia called HS-Aging is about as common as Alzheimer's. Yet few people have heard of it. Why? What makes it different?

What is HS-Aging?

HS-Aging stands for "Hippocampal Sclerosis in Aging People".

Alzheimer's and HS-Aging are types of dementia. In people over 95, their prevalence is about equal.

HS-Aging is Not Well Known. Everyone Has Heard of Alzheimer's. Why?

There are hundreds of types of dementia. In people aged 65 to 95, 60% of dementia cases are Alzheimer's. That is why Alzheimer's is so well-known.

At age 95, the balance shifts and HS-Aging becomes about as common as Alzheimer's.

Few people have heard of HS-Aging. The main reason is because it is often mis-diagnosed as Alzheimer's. Why?

When dementia is seen in the elderly, the default diagnosis is Alzheimer's. This is caused by many factors, among them:

  • Patients often do not want to go through extensive testing for a variety of reasons.
  • There is no simple test. The differences between dementias can be subtle. Therefore, distinguishing between dementias is often technically challenging.
  • Cost comes into play. For example, F18 dementia scans can run thousands of dollars. Therefore, many a diagnosis is made based on incomplete information.

With these realities, it is common for a diagnosis to default to the most common dementia, which is Alzheimer's.

As a result, people with dementias such as HS-Aging often live out their lives thinking they have Alzheimer's.

How does HS-Aging differ from Alzheimer's?

Alzheimer's and HS-Aging both damage the hippocampus. It seems that HS-Aging hits harder than Alzheimer's, causing greater disturbances to memory.

HS-Aging describes a brain under attack from a protein called TDP-43. It causes sclerosis, or the hardening of tissues. In the case of HS-Aging, TDP-43 proteins harden brain tissue in the hippocampus (sometimes called the memory-processing center), causing the loss of a large number of crucial brain cells. It is called Hippocampal Sclerosis because the brain's hippocampus is the focus of the attack.

Alzheimer's, on the other hand, is an attack on the brain by plaques (made from beta-amyloid) and tangles (made of tau proteins). Researchers speculate that the plaques clump together and "choke" brain cells, while the tangles strangle them from within.

How does HS-Aging differ from regular HS?

Regular Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS) occurs in younger people where brain tissue hardening is associated with epilepsy. HS-Aging is a similar hardening, but it occurs in the elderly with different consequences. It is caused by a long life of physical wear-and-tear on the brain, similar to vascular dementia. As a matter of fact, once people hit 95, the combined occurrences of HS-Aging PLUS vascular dementia actually outstrip Alzheimer's.

Why does the type of dementia matter?

As explained above, the biochemistry of each dementia differs significantly. This implies different medications are required to fight the chemicals causing the dementia. A person's response to medicines and supplements will be entirely different, depending on the disease.

Importantly, new F18 imaging techniques have recently been introduced that let doctors see if a person with dementia has the plaques associated with Alzheimer's. Using this technique helps doctors tell the difference between Alzheimer's and HS-Aging. This is particularly crucial in the world of clinical trials, where participants must closely match the experimental drugs they are testing.

CTE Research Leading to Rapid Improvements in HS-Aging Treatments

When we talk about dementia in aging athletes, it is usually the type of dementia called CTE (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy). Recent studies showed athletes in contact sports like football are 19 times more likely than average to develop dementia. As a result, there has been a huge burst of research on CTE treatment.

CTE treatment has a lot in common with HS-Aging treatment. With the new attention both of these dementias are now receiving, there is good reason to hope for effective new treatments in the immediate future.


MORE INFORMATION: 
Study #1 above was done with the collaboration of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (or "NACC"; the first author of this study, Willa Brenowitz, is based in Washington state and works with NACC), enabling Nelson and colleagues to incorporate data from dozens of federally funded Alzheimer's Disease Centers around the country. These centers are funded by the National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health. The research was supported by NIA grant numbers U01 AG016976 and P30 AG028383.

Study #2 above was based on analyses that were boosted through collaboration with the larger NACC-based dataset. Further, the first author, Dr. Janna Neltner, provided critical expertise in digital pathologic measurement of the brain. 

SOURCE:
University of Kentucky Sanders-Brown Center on Aging

Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Does fish oil improve cognition

Caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professionals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

DNI (The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative) is one of the world's largest Alzheimer's research projects. ADNI researchers examined how fish oil supplements relates to improvements in cognitive decline and brain atrophy. What they found is worth knowing. 




PROVIDENCE, R.I. –Rhode Island Hospital researchers have completed a study that found regular use of fish oil supplements (FOS) was associated with a significant reduction in cognitive decline and brain atrophy in older adults. The study examined the relationship between FOS use during the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and indicators of cognitive decline. The findings are published in the journal, Alzheimer's & Dementia.

"At least one person is diagnosed every minute with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and despite best efforts, we have not yet found a cure for this pervasive and debilitating disease," said principal investigator Lori Daiello, PharmD, of the Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center at Rhode Island Hospital. "The field is currently engaged in numerous studies to find better treatments for people suffering with AD; however, researching ways to prevent AD or slow cognitive decline in normal aging is of utmost importance."

In this retrospective study, older adults involved in the ADNI study were assessed with neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) every six months. The group included 229 older adults who were cognitively normal; 397 who were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment; and 193 with AD.

The study found that fish oil supplement use during the study was associated with significantly lower rates of cognitive decline as measured by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog), and the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), but this benefit was observed only for the group of participants without dementia at the time of enrollment.

"Additionally, serial brain imaging conducted during this study showed that the participants with normal cognition who reported taking fish oil supplements demonstrated less brain shrinkage in key neurological areas, compared to those who did not use the supplements," Daiello said. "Also, the positive findings on cognitive testing and brain MRI were only observed in persons who did not carry the best-studied genetic risk factor for AD, APOE-4. More research is needed, but these findings are promising and highlight the need for future studies to expand the current knowledge of the effects of FOS use on cognitive aging and AD."



This research was funded by from the Agency for HealthCare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (K08 HS017735); National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) (R00AA020235, P01AA019072, and R01NS080655); National Cancer Institute (R03 CA153942, R01 CA155381); National Institute of Nursing Research (R01 NR011295); National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (R01HL109116, R01 CA159954, 5T32HL076134, R01 HL064342); National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (R01AT006948); National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA021729, R34 DA031057); National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disorders (R18 DK075371); National Institutes of Health (R01 HL089311, U01 CA1503878; R34 DA031057-02, P01 AA019072, R01 NS036524, R01 HL084178, R01 DA020725, R56 DK075119, and R01 MH074368); and support from Pfizer; Janssen; Baxter, Eli Lilly and Avid pharmaceutical companies. Daiello's principal affiliation is Rhode Island Hospital, and she also holds academic appointments in the department of neurology (research) at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Health Services, Policy & Practice in the Brown University School of Public Health. Other current and former Lifespan researchers involved in the study are Brian Ott, M.D (Rhode Island Hospital; Shira Dunsiger, Ph.D, of The Miriam Hospital, Assawin Gongvatana, Ph.D (University of California San Diego), and Ronald A. Cohen, Ph.D., (University of Florida).

About Rhode Island Hospital

Founded in 1863, Rhode Island Hospital in Providence, R.I., is a private, not-for-profit hospital and is the principal teaching hospital of The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University. A major trauma center for southeastern New England, the hospital is dedicated to being on the cutting edge of medicine and research. Last year, Rhode Island Hospital received more than $55 million in external research funding. It is also home to Hasbro Children's Hospital, the state's only facility dedicated to pediatric care. For more information on Rhode Island Hospital, visit http://www.rhodeislandhospital.org, follow us on Twitter @RIHospital or like us on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/rhodeislandhospitalpage.



Sunday, August 6, 2017

Strong muscles and memory improvement

Caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professionals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best caregiver you can be

Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow alzheimersideas on twitter

The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition]

UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY

HEALTH RESEARCH:

Can muscle strength gains really fight MCI? (MCI is Mild Cognitive Impairment, sometimes nicknamed "pre-Alzheimer's".) Check out this health tip from Australia's "SMART Trial" for seniors. 




Increased muscle strength leads to improved brain function in adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), new results from a recent trial led by the University of Sydney has revealed. 

With 135 million people forecast to suffer from dementia in 2050, the study's findings--published in the Journal of American Geriatrics today--have implications for the type and intensity of exercise that is recommended for our growing ageing population. 

Mild Cognitive Impairment defines people who have noticeably reduced cognitive abilities such as reduced memory but are still able to live independently, and is a precursor to Alzheimer's disease. 

Findings from the Study of Mental and Resistance Training (SMART) trial show, for the first time, a positive causal link between muscle adaptations to progressive resistance training and the functioning of the brain among those over 55 with MCI. 

Print Friendly Version of this pagePrint Get a PDF version of this webpagePDFThe trial was conducted in collaboration with the Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CHeBA) at University of New South Wales and the University of Adelaide. 

"What we found in this follow up study is that the improvement in cognition function was related to their muscle strength gains" said lead author Dr Yorgi Mavros, from the Faculty of Health Sciences, at University of Sydney. 

"The stronger people became, the greater the benefit for their brain." 

SMART was a randomised, double-blind trial involving 100 community-dwelling adults with MCI, aged between 55 and 86. They were divided into four groups doing either:

  • Resistance exercise and computerised cognitive training;
  • Resistance exercise and a placebo computerised training (watching nature videos);
  • Brain training and a placebo exercise program (seated stretching/calisthenics); or
  • Placebo physical exercise and placebo cognitive training.
Participants doing resistance exercise prescribed weight lifting sessions twice week for six months, working to at least 80 per cent of their peak strength. As they got stronger, the amount of weight they lifted on each machine was increased to maintain the intensity at 80 per cent of their peak strength. 

The primary outcomes of a paper published in 2014 found these participants' global cognition improved significantly after the resistance training, as measured by tests including the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive scale. The cognitive training and placebo activities did not have this benefit. The benefits persisted even 12 months after the supervised exercise sessions ended. 

"The more we can get people doing resistance training like weight lifting, the more likely we are to have a healthier ageing population," said Dr Mavros. 

"The key however is to make sure you are doing it frequently, at least twice a week, and at a high intensity so that you are maximising your strength gains. This will give you the maximum benefit for your brain." 

These new findings reinforce research from the SMART trial published earlier this year, whereby MRI scans showed an increase in the size of specific areas of the brain among those who took part in the weight training program. These brain changes were linked to the cognitive improvements after weight lifting. 

"The next step now is to determine if the increases in muscle strength are also related to increases in brain size that we saw," said senior author Professor Maria Fiatarone Singh, geriatrician at University of Sydney. 

"In addition, we want to find the underlying messenger that links muscle strength, brain growth, and cognitive performance, and determine the optimal way to prescribe exercise to maximise these effects." 


MORE INFORMATION:
  • The SMART trial was funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council. It was conducted in collaboration with the Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CHeBA) at UNSW and the Universe

Friday, August 4, 2017

Hippocampus, marijuana, and dementia

Caregivers, and healthcare professionals,here is some great information

Here is a great 
dementia resource for caregivers and healthcare professionals,

Your residents will love the Amazon Kindle Fire

Here is information on being the best 
caregiver you can be


Here is a way for nurses administrators, social workers and other health care  professionals to get an easyceu or two

Follow 
alzheimersideas on twitter


The Dementia Caregiver's Little Book of Hope [Kindle Edition


IOS Press
PREVENTION & THERAPY NEWS:
The hippocampus is the brain's memory and learning center. In a big new study of 26,000 people, the hippocampus did not get along with marijuana. Marijuana lowered blood flow to levels unseen in any other group. Find out why this strongly suggests higher vulnerability to Alzheimer’s. 



As the U.S. races to legalize marijuana for medicinal and recreational use, a new, large scale brain imaging study gives reason for caution. Published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, researchers using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a sophisticated imaging study that evaluates blood flow and activity patterns, demonstrated abnormally low blood flow in virtually every area of the brain, in nearly 1,000 marijuana users compared to healthy controls. The marijuana users' low blood flow patterns included areas known to be affected by Alzheimer’s pathology such as the hippocampus. 

Continued below image...

IMAGE LEGEND: Example of a volume rendered brain SPECT image (top down view) of a healthy control compared to an 18-year old daily user of marijuana. While the control subject has symmetric activity, the marijuana user shows overall decreased perfusion. 

All data were obtained for analysis from a large multi-site database, involving 26,268 patients who came for evaluation of complex, treatment resistant issues to one of nine outpatient neuropsychiatric clinics across the United States (Newport Beach, Costa Mesa, Fairfield, and Brisbane, CA, Tacoma and Bellevue, WA, Reston, VA, Atlanta, GA and New York, NY) between 1995-2015. Of these, 982 current or former marijuana users had brain SPECT at rest and during a mental concentration task compared to almost 100 healthy controls. Predictive analytics with discriminant analysis was done to determine if brain SPECT regions can distinguish marijuana user brains from controls brain. Low blood flow in the hippocampus in marijuana users reliably distinguished marijuana users from controls. The right hippocampus during a concentration task was the single most predictive region in distinguishing marijuana users from their normal counterparts. Marijuana use is thought to interfere with memory formation by inhibiting activity in this part of the brain. 

According to one of the co-authors on the study Elisabeth Jorandby, M.D., “As a physician who routinely sees marijuana users, what struck me was not only the global reduction in blood flow in the marijuana users brains, but that the hippocampus was the most affected region due to its role in memory and Alzheimer’s disease. Our research has proven that marijuana users have lower cerebral blood flow than non-users. Second, the most predictive region separating these two groups is low blood flow in the hippocampus on concentration brain SPECT imaging. This work suggests that marijuana use has damaging influences in the brain – particularly regions important in memory and learning and known to be affected by Alzheimer’s.” 

Dr. George Perry, Editor in Chief of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease said, “Open use of marijuana, through legalization, will reveal the wide range of marijuana’s benefits and threats to human health. This study indicates troubling effects on the hippocampus that may be the harbingers of brain damage.” 

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